Is the level of eye-hand coordination and executive functioning related to performance in para table tennis players? – An explorative study
The goal of this explorative study was to explore whether eye-hand coordination and executive functions (i.e. cognitive flexibility, attention control and information processing) are related to the performance level in para table tennis players. The data of 11 elite (age 15-54) and 11 non-elite para table tennis players (age 13-49) were analyzed. The results showed that the elite players performed better than the median norm values for cognitive flexibility and attention control while the non-elite players demonstrated slower information processing than the median norm values (p<0.05). The players’ competition rating correlated significantly with the eye-hand coordination, cognitive flexibility and information processing measures (p < 0.05). Players with a competition rating > 1000 points scored ≥ 24 catches per 30 s in the eye hand coordination task, whereas the players with < 1000 rating points score ≤ 18 catches per 30 s. In contrast, there was a clear overlap of scores between the players with > 1000 and < 1000 rating scores in the executive functions tests. The results present a first profile of para table tennis players regarding their eye-hand coordination and executive functions and the relationship of these constructs with the performance level. Long-term international cooperation is recommended to understand the value of the measured constructs to predict future successes.
Abernethy, B. (1991). Visual search strategies and decision-making in sport. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 22, 189-210.
Ak, E., & Koçak, S. (2010). Coincidence-anticipation timing and reaction time in youth tennis and table tennis players. Perceptual and motor skills, 110(3), 879-887.
Alvarez, J. A., & Emory, E. (2006). Executive function and the frontal lobes: a meta-analytic review. Neuropsychology review, 16(1), 17-42.
Anderson, P. (2002). Assessment and development of executive function (EF) during childhood. Child Neuropsychology, 8(2), 71-82.
Blauwet, C., & Willick, S.E. (2012). The Paralympic Movement: using sports to promote health, disability rights, and social integration for athletes with disabilities. PM&R, 4(11), 851-856.
Delis, D. C., Kaplan, E., & Kramer, J.H. (2001). Delis-Kaplan executive function system (D-KEFS). Psychological Corporation.
De Vries, S. J., Verwoert, T., Van Otten, S., & Faber, I. R. (2014). Cognitive functions of elite and sub-elite table tennis players. In L. Jans & S. Vos (Eds.), Abstractbook of ‘Dag van het Sportonderzoek 2013’ (p. 126). Eindhoven: Fontys Sporthogeschool.
Diamond, A. (2006). The early development of executive functions. In E. Bialystok & F.I. Craik (Eds.), Lifespan cognition: Mechanisms of change (pp. 70-95). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Elferink-Gemser, M., Jordet, G., Coelho E Silva, M.J. & Visscher, C. (2011). The marvels of elite sports: How to get there? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45, 683-684.
Elferink-Gemser, M. T., Faber, I. R., Visscher, C., Hung, T. M., de Vries, S. J., & Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M. W. (2018). Higher-level cognitive functions in Dutch elite and sub-elite table tennis players. PloS one, 13(11), e0206151.
Eggermont, L.H.P., Milberg, W.P., Lipsitz, L.A., Scherder, E.J.A., & Leveille, S.G. (2009). Physical activity and executive function in aging: the MOBILIZE Boston study. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 57(10), 1750-6.
Faber, I.R., Oosterveld, F.G.J., & Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G. (2014). Does an Eye-Hand Coordination Test Have Added Value as Part of Talent Identification in Table Tennis? A Validity and Reproducibility Study. PLoS ONE 9(1): e85657. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085657
Faber, I. R., Nijhuis-Van Der Sanden, M. W., Elferink-Gemser, M. T., & Oosterveld, F. G. (2015). The Dutch motor skills assessment as tool for talent development in table tennis: a reproducibility and validity study. Journal of Sports Sciences, 33(11), 1149-1158.
Faber, I. R., Elferink-Gemser, M. T., Faber, N. R., Oosterveld, F. G., & Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M. W. (2016). Can Perceptuo-Motor Skills Assessment Outcomes in Young Table Tennis Players (7–11 years) Predict Future Competition Participation and Performance? An Observational Prospective Study. PloS one, 11(2), e0149037.
Faber, I.R. (2016). Diamonds in the rough. Searching for high potential in youth table tennis players. Twello, The Netherlands. doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.29352.78082.
Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. London: Sage Publications Ltd.
Filipčič, A., & Filipčič, T. (2005). The relationship of tennis-specific motor abilities and the competition efficiency of young female tennis players. Kinesiology, 37(2), 164-172.
Filipčič, A., Pisk, L., & Filipčič, T. (2010). Relationship between the results of selected motor tests and competitive successfulness in tennis for different age categories. Kinesiology, 42(2), 175-183.
Fuchs, M., Faber, I. R., & Lames, M. (2019). Game characteristics in elite para table tennis. German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research, 49(3), 251-258.
Gagné, F. (2004). Transforming Gifts into talents: the DGMT as a developmental theory 1. High ability studies, 15(2), 119-147.
Golden, C. J. (1975). The measurement of creativity by the Stroop Color and Word Test. Journal of personality assessment, 39(5), 502-506.
Hinkle, D. E., Wiersma, W., & Jurs, S. G. (2003). Applied statistics for the behavioral sciences. Boston: Cengage Learning, Inc.
Homack, S., & Riccio, C. A. (2004). A meta-analysis of the sensitivity and specificity of the Stroop Color and Word Test with children. Archives of clinical Neuropsychology, 19(6), 725-743.
Hopkins, W. G. (2000). Measures of reliability in sports medicine and science. Sports medicine, 30(1), 1-15.
Hughes, P. K., Bhundell, N. L., & Waken, J. M. (1993). Visual and psychomotor performance of elite, intermediate and novice table tennis competitors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 76(2), 51-60.
Huijgen, B. C., Leemhuis, S., Kok, N. M., Verburgh, L., Oosterlaan, J., Elferink-Gemser, M. T., & Visscher, C. (2015). Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years. PloS one, 10(12), e0144580.
Hung, T. M., Spalding, T. W., Santa Maria, D. L., & Hatfield, B. D. (2004). Assessment of reactive motor performance with event-related brain potentials: attention processes in elite table tennis players. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 26(2), 317-337.
International Table Tennis Federation. (2018). Classification Rules for ITTF Para Table Tennis. Rules consistent with the 2015 IPC Athlete Classification Code and accompanying International Standards. Retrieved from: https://www.ipttc.org/classification/Rules/ITTFPTT%20Classification%20Rules%202018.pdf
Kannekens, R., Elferink-Gemser, M. T., & Visscher, C. (2011). Positioning and deciding: Key factors for talent development in soccer. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 21, 846–852. doi:10.1111/j.16000838.2010.01104.x
Kondrič, M., Zagatto, A.M., & Sekulić, D. (2013). The physiological demands of table tennis: a review. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 12, 362-370.
Lansbergen, M.M., Kenemans, J.L., & van Engeland, H. (2007). Stroop interference and attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder: A review and metaanalysis. Neuropsychology, 21(2), 251.
Lees, A. (2003). Science and the major racket sports: a review. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 12, 362-370.
Logan, G.D. (1994). On the ability to inhibit thought and action: A users’ guide to the stop signal paradigm. In: Dagenbach D, Carr TH, eds. Inhibitory processes in attention memory and language. San Diego CA: Academic Press. 189-239.
Mantis, K., Zachopoulou, E., & Mavridis, T. (1998). A battery of tests for evaluating abilities related to the tennis serve. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 35(2), 73-87.
McLeod, T. C. V., Barr, W. B., McCrea, M., & Guskiewicz, K. M. (2006). Psychometric and measurement properties of concussion assessment tools in youth sports. Journal of athletic training, 41(4), 399.
Miyake, A., Friedman, N.P., Emerson, M.J., Witzki, A.H., Howerter, A. & Wagner, T.D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 49-100.
Monsell, S. (1996). Control of mental processes. In V. Bruce (Ed.), Unsolved mysteries of the mind: Tutorial essays in cognition (pp. 93-148). Hove, UK: Erlbaum.
Munivrana, G., Furjan-Mandić, G., & Kondrič, M. (2015). Determining the Structure and Evaluating the Role of Technical-Tactical Elements in Basic Table Tennis Playing Systems. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 10(1), 111-132.
Nikolić, I., Furjan-Mandić, G., & Kondrič, M. (2014). The relationship of morphology and motor abilities to specific table tennis tasks in youngsters. Collegium Antropologicum, 1, 241-245.
Panjan, A., Sarabon, N., & Filipčič, A. (2010). Prediction of the successfulness of tennis players with machine learning methods. Kinesiology, 42(1), 98-106.
Raab, M., Masters, R. S., & Maxwell, J. P. (2005). Improving the ‘how’and ‘what’decisions of elite table tennis players. Human movement science, 24(3), 326-344.
Reitan, R.M. (1971). Trail Making Test results for normal and brain-damaged children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 33, 575-81.
Rognoni, T., Casals-Coll, M., Sánchez-Benavides, G., Quintana, M., Manero, R. M., Calvo, L., ... & Peña-Casanova, J. (2013). Estudios normativos españoles en población adulta joven (proyecto NEURONORMA jóvenes): normas para las pruebas Stroop Color-Word Interference Test y Tower of London-Drexel University. Neurología, 28(2), 73-80.
Sanchez-Cubillo, I., Perianez, J. A., Adrover-Roig, D., Rodriguez-Sanchez, J. M., Rios-Lago, M., Tirapu, J. E. E. A., & Barcelo, F. (2009). Construct validity of the Trail Making Test: role of task-switching, working memory, inhibition/interference control, and visuomotor abilities. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15(3), 438.
Schmidt, R.A., & Lee, T.D. (2011). Motor control and learning: A behavioral emphasis (5th ed.). Champaign IL: Human Kinetics.
Strauss, E., Sherman, E.M.S., & Spreen, O. (2006). A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary. USA: Oxford University Press.
Swanson, J. (2005). The Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System: A Review. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 20, 117-128.
Tombaugh, T. N. (2004). Trail Making Test A and B: normative data stratified by age and education. Archives of clinical neuropsychology, 19(2), 203-214.
Verburgh, L., Scherder, E. J., van Lange, P. A., & Oosterlaan, J. (2014). Executive functioning in highly talented soccer players. PloS one, 9(3), e91254.
Vestberg, T., Gustafson, R., Maurex, L., Ingvar, M., & Petrovic, P. (2012). Executive functions predict the success of top-soccer players. PloS one, 7(4), e34731.
Walsh, V. (2014). Is sport the brain’s biggest challenge? Current biology, 24(18), R859-R860.
Wang, C. H., Chang, C. C., Liang, Y. M., Shih, C. M., Chiu, W. S., Tseng, P., ... & Juan, C. H. (2013). Open vs. closed skill sports and the modulation of inhibitory control. PloS one, 8(2), e55773.
Wang, B., Guo, W., & Zhou, C. (2016). Selective enhancement of attentional networks in college table tennis athletes: a preliminary investigation. PeerJ, 4, e2762.
Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Racket Sports Science
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.