Job satisfaction and job commitment of Greek tennis, table-tennis and badminton coaches

Keywords: Job satisfaction, job commitment, racket sports

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate job satisfaction and job commitment of coaches of the three major racket sports in Greek tennis, table-tennis and badminton. One hundred and ten (N = 110) tennis (NT= 61), table-tennis (NTT = 31) and badminton (NB = 18) coaches responded to the Coach Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ), an eleven-factor instrument which assesses coaches’ job satisfaction and to the Occupational-Organizational Commitment Scale, a six factor questionnaire which evaluates the different forms of occupational and organizational commitment. Forty six of the coaches were full-time (NFT = 46) whereas of the rest, sixty four were part-time (NPT = 64). The results of a series of t-tests, ANOVAs and correlation analyses revealed various significant differences and relationships. Some of the most important are that: a) tennis coaches and full-time coaches were more satisfied in most of the job satisfaction dimensions, b) significant correlations were noticed between “job satisfaction” and “organizational commitment” variables, c) “autonomy”, was a predictor of “organizational affective commitment”, d) “satisfaction with coaching job” was the unique predictor of occupational affective and “occupational normative commitment” and e) “team performance” was the only predictor of “occupational continuance commitment”. Most of the results are in accordance with the existing job satisfaction literature however, further research is needed on human relation practices of National Federations and/or sport clubs associated with them, in order to have a better understanding of how certain practices and policies lead to higher levels of job satisfaction, organizational and occupational commitment among racket sport coaches.

Author Biographies

Argiris Theodosiou, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Physical Education & Sport Science, Thessaloniki, Greece

Amalia Drakou, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Physical Education & Sport Science, Thessaloniki, Greece

Thomas Sdoukos, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Physical Education & Sport Science, Thessaloniki, Greece

References

Abuhashesh, M., Al-Dmour, R. & Masa’deh, R. (2019). Factors that affect employees’ job satisfaction and performance to increase customers’ satisfactions. Journal of Human Resources Management Research, Vol. 2019, 1-23, Article ID: 354277, DOI: 10.5171/2019.354277

Ahmad, H., Ahmad, K., & Shah, I. A. (2010). Relationship between job satisfaction, job performance attitude towards work and organizational commitment. European Journal of Social Sciences, 18(2), 257-267.

Bakotić, D. (2016). Relationship between job satisfaction and organizational performance. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 29(1), 118-130.

Barling, J., & Gallagher, D. G. (1996). Part-time employment. In C. L. Cooper & I. T. Robertson (Ed.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 11, pp. 243– 277). Chichester: Wiley.

Barnhill, C. R., Martinez, J. M. Andrew, D. P., & Todd, W. (2018). Sport commitment, occupational commitment, and intent to quit among high school sport officials. Journal of Amateur Sport, 4(1), 1-21.

Bateman, T. S., & Strasser, S. (1984). A longitudinal analysis of the antecedents of organizational commitment. Academy of Management Journal, 27, 95-112.

Bradford Conant, E. (2017). The impact of role conflict on job satisfaction of independent school athletic directors. Journal of Amateur Sport, 3(1), 1-26.

Chelladurai, P. (1999). Human resource management in sport and recreation. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Chelladurai, P., & Ogasawara, E. (2003). Satisfaction and commitment of American and Japanese collegiate coaches. Journal of Sport Management, 17(1), 62-73.

Clinebell, S. K., & Clinebell, J. M. (2007). Differences between part-time and full-time employees in the financial services industry. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 14(2), 157-167.

Courtney, C., & Younkyoung, K. (2017). Intentions to turnover. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 38(2), 194-209.

Cronbach, L. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of test. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334.

Currivan, D. B. (1999). The casual order of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in models of employee turnover. Human Resource Management Review, 9(4), 495-524.

Drakou, A. (2006). Job satisfaction among sport coaches in Greece. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Democritus University of Thrace, Komotini, Greece.

Drakou, A., Charachousou, Y., Kambitsis, N. & Tzetzis, G. (2008). Job satisfaction differences among coaches of various sports in Greece. Inquiries in Sport and Physical Education, 6(1), 97-110.

Drakou, A., Kambitsis, C., Charachousou, Y., & Tzetzis, G. (2006). Exploring life satisfaction of sport coaches in Greece. European Sport Management Quarterly, 6(30), 239-252.

Eberhardt, B. J., & Shani, A. B. (1984). The effect of full-time versus part-time employment status on attitudes toward specific organizational characteristics and overall job satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 27, 893-900.

Erdheim, J., Wang, M., & Zickar, M. J. (2006). Linking the Big Five personality constructs to organizational commitment. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 959–970.

European Union Labour Force Survey (2018). Retrieved on 22 April 2020 by https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/microdata (European Statistics).

Feldman, D. C. (1990). Reconceptualizing the nature and consequences of part time work. Academy of Management Review, 15, 103-112.

Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS (3rd eds.). London, UK: Sage.

Fiúekçioglu, B., & Savaú Duman, S. (2010). An investigation of job satisfaction levels of sports managers working in amateur sports clubs. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 4901-4905.

Georgiadi, O. (2008). Coaches’ job satisfaction and commitment. (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece.

Gillet, B., & Schwab, D. P. (1975). Convergent and discriminant validities of corresponding Job Discriptive Index and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire scales. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 313-317.

Grobler, S., & Govender, L. (2017). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment in a South African airline. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourismand Leisure. 6(2), 1-24.

Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. (1959). The motivation to work. New York: John Wiley.

Hoseong, J. & Beomjoon, C. (2012). The relationship between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction. Journal of Services Marketing, 26(5), 332-341.

Iverson, R. D. (1992). Employee intent to stay: An empirical test of a revision of thePrice and Mueller model. (Unpublisheddoctoral dissertation). The University of Iowa, Iowa City, US.

Jackofsky, E. F., & Peters, L. H. (1987). Part time versus full time employment status differences: a replication and extension. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 8, 1-9.

Karatuna, I., & Basol, O. (2017). Job satisfaction of part-time vs full-time workers in Turkey: The effect of income and work status satisfaction. International Journal of Value Chain Management, 8(1), 58-72.

Lance, C. E. (1991). Evaluation of a structural model relating job satisfaction, organizationalcommitment, and precursors to voluntary turnover. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 26, 137-162.

Lee, K., Carswell, J. & Allen, N. (2000). A meta-analytic review of occupational commitment: Relations with person and work – related variables. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(5), 799-811.

Lincoln, J. R., & Kalleberg, A. L. (1990). Culture, control and commitment: A study of work organization and work orientations in the United States and Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Liu, X., & Zhang, L. (2015). Examining the relationship among part-time work arrangements, job satisfaction, and work effort: a study of U.S. college faculty. Advances in Industrial and Labor Relations, 21, 87-117.

Llobet, J., & Fito, M. A. (2013). Contingent workforce, organizational commitment and job satisfaction: Review, discussion and research agenda. Intangible Capital, 9(4), 1068-1079.

Mathieu, J. E. (1991). A cross-level nonrecursive model of the antecedents of organizational commitment and satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 607-618.

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1, 61-89.

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1997). Commitment in the Workplace: Theory, Research and Application. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Smith, C. A. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: Extension and test of a Three-Component conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 538-551.

Mokoena, B., & Dhurup, M. (2019). Self-efficasy, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and satisfaction with life relationships: a study among amateur sport coaches in South Africa. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity studies, 11(1), 19-34.

Mueller, C. W., Boyer, E. M., Price, J. L., & Iverson, R. D. (1994). Employee attachment and noncoercive conditions of work: The case of dental hygenists. Work and Occupations, 21, 179-212.

Nath Gangai, K., & Agrawal, R. (2014). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment: is it important for employee performance? International Journal of Management and Business Research, 5(4), 269-278.

Nilipour Tabatabei, A., Takapoo, F., Leilaeyoun, A. (2015). The Effective of Job Satisfaction on Organizational Citizenship Behavior. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 5(1), 155-165.

Podsakoff, N. P., Podsakoff, P. M., & McKenzie, C. B. (2014). Consequences of uni-level organizational citizenship behaviors: a review and recommendations for further research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, S1, 87-119.

Rintaugu, A. G. (2013). Sources of job satisfaction among sport personnel in Kenyan universities. International Journal of Sports Science, 3(6), 211-216.

Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2018). Essential of Organizational Behavior (14th eds). London: Pearson Eds.

Robinson, M. J, Peterson, M., Tedrick, T., & Carpenter, J. R. (2003). Job satisfaction on NCAA Division III athletic directors. International Sports Journal, 7(2), 46-57.

Salonikidis, K., Drakou, A., & Koukouris, K. (2007). The influence of gender, age and experience in satisfaction of male and female professional tennis coaches. Hellenic Journal of Sports & Recreation Management, 4(1), 18-35.

Satoh, M., Watanabe, I., & Asakura, K. (2016). Occupational commitment and job satisfaction mediate effort–reward imbalance and the intention to continue nursing. Japan Journal of Nursing Science, 14(1), 49-60.

Schleicher, D. J., Smith, T. A., Casper, W. J., Watt, J. D., & Greguras, G. J. (2015). It’s all in the attitude: the role of job attitude strength in job attitude-outcome relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(4), 1259-1274.

Snape, E., Wing-hung Lo, C., & Redman, T. (2008). The three-component model of occupational commitment: a comparative study of Chinese and British accountants. Journal of cross cultural psychology, 39(6), 765-781.

Snyder, C. J. (1990). The effects of leader behavior and organizational climate on intercollegiate coaches’ job satisfaction. Journal of Sport Management, 4(1), 59-70.

Spector, P. E. (1997). Job satisfaction – Application, Assessment, Couses, and Consequences. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications.

Srivastava, S. (2013). Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment Relationship: Effect of Personality Variables. Vision: The journal of Business Perspective, 17(2), 159-167.

Suma, S., & Lesha, J. (2013). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment: the case of Shkodra Municipality. European Scientific Journal, 9(17), 41-51.

Takamatsu, S., & Yamaguchi, Y. (2018). Effect of coaching behaviors on job satisfaction and organizational commitment: The case of comprehensive community sport clubs in Japan. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 13(4), 508-519.

Turner, B. A. (2001). Commitment among intercollegiate athletic coaches. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). School of the Ohio State University, Ohio City, US.

Turner, B. A., & Chelladurai, P. (2005).Organizational and occupational commitment, intention to leave, and perceived performance of intercollegiate coaches. Journal of Sport Management, 19(2), 193-211.

Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (1992). Examining the causal order of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Journal of Management, 18, 153-167.

Vandenberghere, C. (2008). The role of pay satisfaction and organizational commitment in turnover intentions: A two-sample study. Journal of Business and Psychology, 22(3), 275-286.

Wallace, J. E. (1995). Corporatist control and organizational commitment among professionals: The case of lawyers working in law firms. Social Forces, 73, 811-840.

Wang, L., Tao, H., Ellenbecker, C. H., & Liu, X. (2011). Job satisfaction, occupational commitment and intent to stay among Chinese nurses: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(3), 539-49.

Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1997). Extraversion and its positive emotional core. In S. R. Briggs, W. H. Jones, & R. Hogan (Eds.), Handbook of personality psychology. New York: Academic Press.

Wright, P. M., Gardner, T. M., Moynihan, L. M., & Allen, M. R. (2005). The relationship between HR practices and firm performance: Examining causal order. Personnel Psychology, 58, 409-446.

Yousaf, A., Sanders, K., & Abbas, Q. (2015). Organizational/occupational commitment and organizational/occupational turnover intentions. Personnel Review, 44(4), 470-491.

Published
2020-12-23
How to Cite
Theodosiou, A., Drakou, A., & Sdoukos, T. (2020). Job satisfaction and job commitment of Greek tennis, table-tennis and badminton coaches. International Journal of Racket Sports Science, 2(2), 47-58. Retrieved from https://journal.racketsportscience.org/index.php/ijrss/article/view/20