Reliability and validity of motion sensor and radar for measuring shuttlecock velocity in badminton
Reliability and validity to measure velocity in badminton
Radar doppler and inertial measurement unit are often used to analyze the projectile velocity. The aim of the present study was to analyse the reliability and validity of a specifically motion sensor (named: Zepp Tennis) and a radar (Doppler-radar gun) for measuring projectile velocity. Thirty-four (novice, intermediate and expert) stroke badminton smash in a located target. Projectile velocity from five smashes were extracted using Zepp Tennis and Doppler-radar gun data. Between reproducibility of measures was determined by comparing the two sessions. Zepp Tennis and Doppler-radar gun measures were compared with high-frequency video data to establish validity. Both instruments were highly reproducible between trials at different velocity (intra-class correlation coefficient: 0.88-0.94 for radar and 0.78-0.89 for motion sensor). In addition, the positioning of the radar (front of the projectile and angulation) and the placement of the motion sensor and the complexity of the movement (forearm extension and pronation) affect the reproducibility. In terms of validity, radar and motion sensor provides an accurate measure but underestimate projectile velocity (-9.7% and -13.6% respectively).
Atkinson, G., & Nevill, A. M. (1998). Statistical methods for assessing measurement error (reliability) in variables relevant to sports medicine. Sports Medicine, 26(4), 217-238.
Balsalobre-Fernándeza, C., Glaisterb, M., & Lockeyb, R. A. (2015). The validity and reliability of an iPhone app for measuring vertical jump performance. Journal of Sports Science, 33(15), 1574-1579.
Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (1986). Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. The Lancet, 1(8476), 307-310.
Chelly, S. M., & Denis, C. (2001). Leg power and hopping stiffness: relationship with sprint running performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(2), 326-333.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavior sciences (Lawrence E).
Connaghan, D., Conaire, C., Kelly, P., & O’Connor, N. (2010). Recognition of tennis strokes using key postures. Signals and Systems Conference, 245-248.
Coyle, S., Morris, D., Lau, K., Diamond, D., & Moyna, N. (2009). Textilebased wearable sensors for assisting sports performance. Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks, 307-311.
Domone, S., Wheat, J., Choppin, S., Hamilton, N., & Heller, B. (2012). Wavelet based de-noising of non stationary kinematic signals. 30th Annual Conference of Biomechanics in Sports, 44, 376-379.
French, A. (1968). Special Relativity.
Gindre, C., Lussiana, T., Hebert-Losier, K., & Morin, J. (2016). Reliability and validity of the Myotest® for measuring running stride kinematics. Journal of Sports Science, 34(7), 664-670.
Halliday, D., Resnick, R., & Walker, J. (2011). Fundamentals of Physics (9th edn).
Hopkins, W. G. (2000). Measures of reliability in sports medicine and science. Sports Medicine, 30, 1-15.
Huang, K. S., Shaw-Shiun, C., & Tsai, C. L. (2002). Kinematic analysis of three different badminton backhand overhead strokes. International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports, 200-202.
Hussain, I., & Arshad Bari, M. (2011). Kinematical analysis of forehand and backhand smash in badminton. Innovative Systems Design and Engineering, 2(7), 20-26.
Jaitner, T., & Wolf, G. (2007). Analysis of badminton smash with a mobile measure device based on accelerometry. XXV ISBA Symposium Vol 20, 282-284.
Laffaye, G., Debanne, T., & Choukou, M. A. (2012). Is the ball velocity dependent on expertise? A multidimensional study in handball. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 12(3), 629-642.
Laffaye, G., Phomsoupha, M., & Dor, F. (2015). Changes in the game characteristics of a badminton match: a longitudinal study through the Olympic Game finals analysis in men’s singles. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 14, 584-590.
Laffaye, G., Wagner, P., & Tombleson, T. (2014). Countermovement jump height: Gender and sport-specific differences in the force-time variables. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 28, 1096-1105.
Lee, B. K. (1993). The effects of the kinematic link principle on performance. 11 International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports, 239-242.
Miller, S. (2006). Modern tennis rackets, balls, and surfaces. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(5), 401-405.
Nagasawa, M., Hatori, Y., Kakuta, M., Hayashi, T., & Sekine, Y. (2012). Smash motion analysis for badminton from image. Proceedings of the IEEJ Image Electronics and Visual Computing Workshop, 1-8.
Petkovic, M., Jonker, W., & Zivkovic, Z. (2001). Recognizing Strokes in Tennis Videos Using Hidden Markov Models. IASTED International Conference on Visualization, Imaging and Image Processing, 512-516.
Phomsoupha, M., & Laffaye, G. (2014). Shuttlecock velocity during a smash stroke in badminton evolves linearly with skill level. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 17(Suppl 1), 140-141.
Phomsoupha, M., & Laffaye, G. (2015). The science of badminton: game characteristics, anthropometry, physiology, visual fitness and biomechanics. Sports Medicine, 45(4), 473-495.
Phomsoupha, M., & Laffaye, G. (2020). A multiple repeated sprint ability test with four changes of direction for badminton players (part 2): predicting skill level with anthropometry, strength, shuttlecock and displacement velocity. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 34(1), 203-211.
Phomsoupha, M., Laffaye, G., Cohen, C., & Clanet, C. (2015). How to use the elasticity of a badminton racket to increase its speed by 80%? Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 18.
Portney, L. G., & Watkins, M. P. (2009). Foundations of clinical research : applications to practice (Upper Sadd). N.J: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Rambely, A. S., Osman, N. A. A., Usman, J., & Wan Abas, W. A. B. (2005). The contribution of upper limb joints in the development of racket velocity in the badminton smash. 23 International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports, 422-426.
Resnick, R. (1968). Introduction to Special Relativity.
Robinson, G., & Robinson, I. (2016). Radar speed gun true velocity measurements of sports-balls in flight: application to tennis. Physica Scripta, 91(2), 1-19.
Stokes, M. (1985). Reliability and repeatability of methods for measuring muscle in physiotherapy. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 1(2), 71-76.
Strohmeyer, H. S., Armstrong, C., Litvinsky, Y., Nooney, R., Moore, J., & Smith, K. (2009). Intersegmental coordination differences between beginning performers executing a badminton smash for accuracy of velocity. 27 International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports.
Takahashi, H., & Kawahara, T. (2011). Conditioning in multi-support project. The Journal of Japanese Society of Clinical Sports Medicine, 19(2), 195.
Tsai, C. L., Chang, S. S., & Huang, C. (2000). Biomechanical analysis of differences in the badminton smash and jump smash between taiwan elite and collegiate players. ISBS’98 - Proceedings II, 259-262.
Tsai, C. L., Hsueh, Y. C., Pan, K. M., & Chang, S. S. (2008). Biomechanical analysis of different badminton forehand overhead strokes of Taiwan elite femal players. 26 International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports, Conference, Coaching and Sports Performance, 719-722.
Tsai, C. L., Huang, C., Lin, D. C., Cheng, C. C., & Lai, C. M. (2000). Biomechanical analysis of the upper extremity in three different badminton overhead strokes. 18th International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports, 35-38.
Tsai, C. L., Yang, C. C., Lin, M. S., & Huang, K. S. (2005). The surface EMG activity analysis between badminton smash and jump smash. International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports, 483-486.
Tsai, C. L., Yang, C. C., Lin, M. S., Huang, K. S., & Chang, S. S. (2006). The surface EMG activity of the upper limb muscles of badminton forehand and backhand smashes. 24 International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports, 3-6.
White, H. (1980). A heteroskedasticity-consistent covariance matrix estimator and a direct test for heteroskedasticity. Econometrica, 48(4), 817-838.
Yonex. (2013). Nanoray Z speed. http://www.yonex.com/nanoray/#top
Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Racket Sports Science
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.