A tennis field test to objectively measure the hitting accuracy based on an Excel spreadsheet

Practical guidelines and applications

Keywords: tennis, stroke precision, testing, racket sports, software

Abstract

Stroke accuracy is highly related with tennis performance and has traditionally been quantified using general areas of scoring. Hence there is a need to develop methods that allow accuracy to be measured with higher resolution. The aim of the work is to develop a field test and an Excel spreadsheet associated that allows to evaluate the accuracy of the strokes with a resolution up to centimetres and to study how shots landings are distributed. The test consists of 4 series of 20 groundstrokes performed in the down the line or cross-court direction (this is modifiable). The 2D coordinates of bounce of the ball is recorded with a camera, digitalized using a specialized software and introduced in the Excel spreadsheet. Then it computes a series of parameters that describe the 95% confidence ellipse of the shot landing on the court. A real example of the test outcomes of two advanced players – performing forehands and backhands down the line- is shown. Consistent with previous literature both players obtained a better accuracy in the mediolateral direction than in the longitudinal direction and ellipses were oriented almost parallel to the sideline (ellipse tilts were below 12 degrees in all cases). Ellipse area was considerably greater for the backhand than for the forehand in player two (38.8 vs. 55.5 m2) but not in player one (51.5 vs. 50.8 m2). Finally, the centre location of the ellipse in the longitudinal axis was positive in all cases (near 200 cm) which suggest that both players preferred to make short shots rather than send the ball out of the limits of the baseline. We conclude that this methodology can be used by researchers that want to assess accuracy with high resolution and by coaches that want to evaluate -with high sensibility- the player progression after a training program.

Author Biographies

Gabriel Delgado-García, Universidad de Granada

Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sports Sciences, University of Granada, Spain.
Sport and Health Research Institute (iMUDS), University of Granada, Spain.

Prof. Jos Vanrenterghem, University of Leuven

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, University of Leuven, Belgium.

Prof. Javier Courel-Ibáñez, University of Murcia

Department of Physical Activity and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Murcia, San Javier, Murcia, Spain.

Emilio J. Ruiz-Malagón, University of Granada

Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sports Sciences, University of Granada, Spain.
Sport and Health Research Institute (iMUDS), University of Granada, Spain.

Santiago Ruiz-Alias, University of Granada

Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sports Sciences, University of Granada, Spain.
Sport and Health Research Institute (iMUDS), University of Granada, Spain.

Víctor Manuel Soto-Hermoso, University of Granada

Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sports Sciences, University of Granada, Spain.
Sport and Health Research Institute (iMUDS), University of Granada, Spain.

References

Allen, T., Choppin, S., & Knudson, D. (2016). A review of tennis racket performance parameters. Sports Engineering, 19(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12283-014-0167-x

Baiget, E., Fernández-Fernández, J., Iglesias, X., Vallejo, L., & Rodríguez, F. A. (2014). On-Court Endurance and Performance Testing in Competitive Male Tennis Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(1), 256–264. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182955dad

Bower, R., & Sinclair, P. (2007). Tennis racket stiffness, string tension and impact velocity effects on post-impact ball angular velocity. Sports Engineering, 10, 111–122.

Bower, R., & Cross, R. (2005). String tension effects on tennis ball rebound speed and accuracy during playing conditions. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(7), 765–771. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410400021914

Calvin, W. (1983). A stone’s throw and its launch window: Timing precision and its implications for language and hominid brains. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 104, 121–135.

Chavda, S., Bromley, T., Jarvis, P., Williams, S., Bishop, C., Turner, A., Lake, J., & Mundy, P. (2018). Force-time characteristics of the countermovement jump: Analyzing the curve in excel. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 40(2), 67–77. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000353

Davey, P., Thorpe, R., & Williams, C. (2003). Simulated tennis matchplay in a controlled environment. Journal of Sports Sciences, 21(6), 459–467. https://doi.org/10.1080/0264041031000101926

Delgado-García, G., Vanrenterghem, J., Muñoz-García, A., Molina-Molina, A., & Soto-hermoso, V.M. (2018). Does stroke performance in amateur tennis players depend on functional power generating capacity? The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 59(5), 760-766. https://doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.18.08518-3

Delgado-García, G., Vanrenterghem, J., Muñoz-García, A., Ruiz-Malagón, E. J., Mañas-Bastidas, A., & Soto-Hermoso, V. M. (2019). Probabilistic structure of errors in forehand and backhand groundstrokes of advanced tennis players. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 19(5), 698-710. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2019.1647733

Dunn, M., Wheat, J., Miller, S., Haake, S., Goodwill, S., & Federation, I. T. (2012). Reconstructing 2D Planar Coordinates Using Linear and Non- Linear Techniques. 30th Annual Conference on Biomechanics in Sports, (100), 380–383.

Engström, E., Ottosson, E., Wohlfart, B., Grundström, N., & Wisén, A. (2012). Comparison of heart rate measured by Polar RS400 and ECG, validity and repeatability. Advances in Physiotherapy, 14(3), 115-122.

Freeston, J., Ferdinands, R., & Rooney, K. (2015). The Launch Window Hypothesis and the Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off in Baseball Throwing. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 121(1), 135–148.

Freeston, J., Ferdinands, R., & Rooney, K. (2007). Throwing velocity and accuracy in elite and sub-elite cricket players: A descriptive study. European Journal of Sport Science, 7(4), 231–237.

Freeston, J., & Rooney, K. (2014). Throwing Speed and Accuracy in Baseball and Cricket Players. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 118(3), 637–650. https://doi.org/10.2466/30.PMS.118k25w4

Holzer, E., Reischl, G., & Fetz, F. (1994). Genauigkeitstraining bei Ballsportarten. ÖBV-Pädagog.Verlag.

International Tennis Federation (ITF). About International Tennis number. Retrieved from http://www.tennisplayandstay.com/itn/about-theitn/about-the-itn.aspx (accessed 7 July 2019).

Knudson, D. , & Blackwell, J. (2005). Variability of impact kinematics and margin for error in the tennis forehand of advanced players. Sports Engineering, 8(2), 75–80. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02844005

Landlinger, J., Stöggl, T., Lindinger, S., Wagner, H., & Müller, E. (2012). Differences in ball speed and accuracy of tennis groundstrokes between elite and high-performance players. European Journal of Sport Science, 12(4), 301–308. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2011.566363

Lyons, M., Al-Nakeeb, Y., Hankey, J., & Nevill, A. (2013). The effect of moderate and high-intensity fatigue on groundstroke accuracy in expert and nonexpert tennis players. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 12(2), 298–308.

Messelodi, S., Modena, C. M., Ropele, V., Marcon, S., & Sgrò, M. (2019). A Low-Cost Computer Vision System for Real-Time Tennis Analysis. International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing, 106–116. Springer.

Reid, M., Morgan, S., & Whiteside, D. (2016). Matchplay characteristics of Grand Slam tennis: implications for training and conditioning. Journal of Sports Sciences, 34(19), 1791–1798. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1139161

Robin, N., Dominique, L., Toussaint, L., Blandin, Y., Guillot, A., & Her, M. (2007). Effects of motor imagery training on service return accuracy in tennis: The role of imagery ability. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 5(2), 175–186. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197x.2007.9671818

Schubert, P., & Kirchner, M. (2014). Ellipse area calculations and their applicability in posturography. Gait and Posture, 39(1), 518–522. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.09.001

Shinya, M., Tsuchiya, S., Yamada, Y., Nakazawa, K., Kudo, K., & Oda, S. (2017). Pitching form determines probabilistic structure of errors in pitch location. Journal of Sports Sciences, 35(21), 2142–2147. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1258484

Smekal, G., Pokan, R., Von Duvillard, S. P., Baron, R., Tschan, H., & Bachl, N. (2000). Comparison of laboratory and on-court endurance testing in tennis. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 21(04), 242–249.

Strecker, E., Foster, E., & Pascoe, D. (2011). Test-retest Reliability for Hitting Accuracy Tennis Test. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(12), 3501–3505. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318215fde6

van den Tillaar, R., & Ettema, G. (2006). A Comparison between Novices and Experts of the Velocity-Accuracy Trade-Off in Overarm Throwing. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 103(2), 503–514. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.103.2.503-514

Vergauwen, L., Brouns, F., & Hespel, P. (1998). Carbohydrate supplementation to improve stroke performance in tennis. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 30(8), 1289–1295.

Vergauwen, L., Spaepen, A., Lefevre, J., & Hespel, P. (1998). Evaluation of stroke performance in tennis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30(8), 1281–1288.

Wawrzyniak, Z. M., & Kowalski, A. (2016). Eventbased image recognition applied in tennis training assistance. Photonics Applications in Astronomy, Communications, Industry, and High-Energy Physics Experiments 2016, 10031, 100311N. International Society for Optics and Photonics.

Wei, X., Lucey, P., Morgan, S., & Sridharan, S. (2013). Sweet-Spot: Using Spatiotemporal Data to Discover and Predict Shots in Tennis. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/cf6c/b34cdc0c2edd03cd2e6217c8b94b6acd506c.pdf

Yamamoto, H., Shinya, M., & Kudo, K. (2018). Cognitive Bias for the Distribution of Ball Landing Positions in Amateur Tennis Players (Cognitive Bias for the Motor Variance in Tennis). Journal of Motor Behavior, 2895, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222895.2018.1440523

Zaiontz C. (2018) Real Statistics Using Excel. Retrieved from www.real-statistics.com.

Published
2019-12-30
How to Cite
Delgado-García, G., Vanrenterghem, J., Courel-Ibáñez, J., Ruiz-Malagón, E. J., Ruiz-Alias, S., & Soto-Hermoso, V. M. (2019). A tennis field test to objectively measure the hitting accuracy based on an Excel spreadsheet. International Journal of Racket Sports Science, 1(2), 24-36. Retrieved from https://journal.racketsportscience.org/index.php/ijrss/article/view/5

Most read articles by the same author(s)